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Tapping Into The Potential of Supercritical Geothermal In Indonesia: Opportunities To Achieve Net Zero Emission Using Geothermal Energy
Indonesia has set to achieve its national Net Zero Emission target by 2060 when geothermal energy is expected to fulfill about 22 GW of the national energy demand. Such an ambitious target is unlikely to be realized using the conventional method of extracting geothermal energy. Nonetheless, Indonesia still has untapped supercritical geothermal resources on a myriad of islands. The country is known to have a great potential of geothermal resources considering its position in the subduction zone, resulting in high-temperature conditions of the resources and the presence of shallow intrusion, which could lead to the existence of supercritical geothermal resources to be extracted. A supercritical geothermal system is an extraordinarily high enthalpy geothermal system located in the depth near or below the brittle-ductile transition zone that is often found in the root of the high-temperature geothermal system. Each system has its own authenticity, but the supercritical condition is generally distinguished by temperature, pressure, and fluid characteristics. Since supercritical geothermal systems are able to provide enormous power output per well, geothermal power plant projects may be more economically competitive. Furthermore, supercritical geothermal systems are believed to be more efficient sources of energy in producing green hydrogen. This study aims to explore the opportunities for developing supercritical geothermal systems in Indonesia. Several developed geothermal fields which show signs of high temperature will be investigated to seek possibilities for further development. The study will involve discussions with geothermal developers, capture signals and clues for supercritical geothermal systems, and identify the geological settings and magmatic environments of developed geothermal fields in Indonesia. Challenges, benefits, and business opportunities of supercritical geothermal projects will then be examined, from both the technical and regulatory aspects. The main results will present considerations in developing supercritical geothermal projects along with the candidates for pilot projects in Indonesia.